Archive for March 2010

인쇄, 복사 의뢰서 - A written request for some copies.

At my work, we have a small half sheet sized form to fill out in if one would like to make mass copies. I like it because if I want a crapton of sheets like my biweekly spelling quiz printed on recycled paper, I use the service. The form itself is simple to fill out once you know what each description means:

용도: which class is this for? 6th grade English? After-school math?
매수: how many copies do you need?
사용일: date that you need it by
사용면: single sided (단면) or double sided (양면)
갱지: recycled paper (재생용지)
복사지: normal white paper
신청자: your name (person who requests)
*결재: stamp of approval

Here's a few copy related terms that also might help:
복사해도 될까요? Should I copy this? / Can I copy this?
복사하다 to copy
프린트 print
프린트 해주세요 Please print this for me
복사기 copy machine
이면지 reusable paper
이면지를 사용하세요 please use recycled paper
이 종이는 이면지예요 this paper is reusable/recycled paper
재활용 recycling
이 종이는 재활용 할 수 있어요 you can recycle this paper
이 종이는 재활용 상자에 넣어주세요 please place the paper into the recycle bin

*note to be confused with 결제: pay the account, make up account

발음: 의

I'm not sure if this will turn into a regular thing but I learned a very helpful thing last night at class. But before I get into that, a brief explanation. I learned early on in my studies that 의 is a tricky character. It represents the possessive "s" (as in 효연의 머리 스타일 "Hyoyeon's hairstyle") as well as a root for many other words. My first tutor would point out that I could pronounce 의 differently in certain situations. However, I didn't know the actual rule. Last night clarified a question I had for over three years.

Depending on the placement of 의 in a word determines its pronunciation. A brief breakdown:

First placement: e.g. 의자, 의사, 의미 = /의/
Second placement: e.g. 회의, 거의  = /이/
Last position: e.g. 선생님의, 아저씨의 = /에/

Update: part two of my thoughts on this one. part one.

I get flustered trying to do the whole sequencing thing in Korean. Like all good students, I learned the "후에" grammar point first. As a means of learning more accurate ways to express order, I am introduced to ~고 나서. When A is finished B will happen (or did happen). Instead of saying "퇴근시간 후에 청국장을 먹었어요" one should say "퇴근하고 나서 청국장을 먹었어요". "~고 나서" does not express tense. Whether A and B already happened or they will happen, either way, the connector stays the same. The tense is reflected in the last verb. It's similar to ~고 but 고 does not imply order.


밥을 먹고나서 수업을 다닐거예요
After I eat, I'm going to go to class.

형을 전화하고나서 낮잠을 잤어요
After I called my friend, I took a nap

보통 아침 7시에 일어나고서 식사를 해요.
Normally, after I wake up, I eat breakfast.

친구들랑 식사하고 나서 노래방에 갔어요
After I ate with some friends, we went to a 노래방.

It's not a hard grammar point to learn but it doesn't always sound right. The problem is in translating directly from English to Korean. For example, I want to say "After teaching, I'll check" so I think to myself "가르치고나서 확인할게요". Although it seems it would be fine, this is really not very natural to say at all. Unfortunately, the grammar point brought up in this post does not fully apply here, either. Instead, ~면 is more commonly used. Obviously the direct translation of 수업끝나면 확인할게요 is "If class ends, I'll check" the implication is more like "when" instead if "if". But don't we already have a "when" clause?

Confused? Join the club.

Hanja (한자)

I normally don't crosspost but this clearly relates to learning Korean. Check out the writeup on Hanja over at my history blog.

I've been tackling Hanja lately and it's not as bad as I thought...but then again, I just got past numbers. I can now officially write the days of the week, the numbers 1 through 10, 100, 1000, and that's about it. We all have to start somewhere and I started at the 3rd grade book from my school. Hey you gotta use what you can get your hands on. My school produces its own Hanja workbook starting from grade 3 so that's what I'm going through now. I write a little bit each day in between classes to keep up the muscle memory.

I'm also using a great little book that's a bit tricky to find but is extremely useful. I'll give it a proper writeup soon enough. It's called Useful Chinese Characters for Learners of Korean. Here's a short review. UPDATE: full review here.

Why does this one confuse me? Well, it goes back to the whole subject versus object discussion. If it's a subject, use 좋아. If it's an object, use 좋아하다. Try not to think of it as "if you like the subject" or "if you like the object" because that's a bit misleading. Plus, one type of thought can easily be expressed a number of different ways. For example:
소녀시대 중에서 누가 제일 좋아?
소녀시대 중에서 누구를 제일 좋아해?

Both loosely mean "Who is your favorite member in 'Girl's Generation'?" but one uses 좋아 and the other uses 좋아하다. Confused? As simple as it is, I get it messed up from time to time. I shouldn't but I do.

A trick that might help is to think of the root. 좋아하다 is a 하다 verb. 하다 is to do something. If you like to do something, then it's 좋아하다 as in "운동 좋아해요?" (Do you like to exercise?) makes more sense than "운동 좋아요?" which makes virtually no sense. If you want to ask if someone likes the act of exercising, perhaps what you mean to ask is "운동 하기 좋아요?" which would, to my best translation, be the same as I the first example but only less common.

Lastly, I've once heard the explanation that 좋아하다 is only used for active verbs but I couldn't tell you the first thing about active versus non-active verbs let alone verify if that trick actually works.

UPDATE: TTMIK has a great lesson on this very subject

Easily the most embarrassing grammar point to mess up.

I know why I get it messed up. Since the subject is omitted in Korean so much, I forget exactly what I'm talking about from time to time. Also, the object doesn't always need to be said....but, when you want to say it, what does one say?

I know what's the main idea of the sentence but having to stop and give it a marker is a bit trying when one is talking at a normal speed can be frustrating. To help myself, I ask myself some questions. Take this sentence "효연 봤어", Let's break it down:

Who saw 효연? I did. I'm the one talking so clearly it was me that saw her.
Who did the subject see? 효연. (self-thought) She's an object of my fantasy (also the object of the sentence). Therefore, "내가 효연을 봤어요." would be appropriate. Too bad no one talks like that...

It should be noted that the whole "oh you don't need it" excuse is both lazy and bad advice. Sure, for simple sentences, it isn't needed but once someone is trying to move from basic baby sentences to complete thoughts, these markers are essential to keeping up the conversation and staying understood. Don't be scared, get comfortable with these markers and only when situation calls for mutual understanding should one start to drop them. Just my two cents.

Title: Roadmap to Korean
Author: Richard Harris
Paperback: 350 pages
Publisher: Hollym International Corporation; 2 edition (November 3, 2003)
ISBN-10: 1565911873
ISBN-13: 978-1565911871

There's a lot of resources out there for students of Korean. Some are written by Koreans for he benefit of foreigners. Most of said resources are laughably bad while few and far between are quite good. On the other hand, some are written by foreigners for the benefit of other foreigners. Most of said resources are either for learning slang or are simply MIA. An exceptional resource is Richard Harris's Roadmap to Korean. His previous effort, interestingly enough, is also hard to find and also very valuable (Faces of Korea).

Don't let the textbook-like cover fool you because this is a resourceful heart-to-heart conversational with you and the author. Harris has compiled his personal notes, stories, charts, tips and tricks all into this neatly presented package. Imagine a super-awesome blog written on paper. It's a very light read and written casually; almost spoken-like. The author has lots of advice to give whether you've never studied the language before or have been for years. There's some history and culture as well as some grammar pitfalls and speaking taboos that are enough to learn from as well as laugh at. His perspective is golden and there's a lot to learn from his book, make no mistake.

I don't have much to say about this book that hasn't already been said. It's a great guide. The only thing I want to criticize is the author's plea to learn hanja. Although I also strongly encourage learning hanja because of its usefulness, he does little in terms of pointing one in the right direction of how to actually study hanja. A minor gripe for such a fabulous study guide. Yes, this book is enough to warrant me saying the word "fabulous".

I would also like to point out that this book is the book I should have written. If I ever had aspirations to publish a "Guide to Study Korean" book, this would have been it. Everything to the comical voice to the practical breakdown of a simple phrase such as "How are you?" Thanks a lot Harris for beating me to the punch and doing a better job than I probably would have done.

I wish I read this years ago.

I'm surprised it took me so long to buy, read, review, use this book. I really could have used this a lot a year ago, two years ago. Anyway, if you know someone starting out in Korean or who is truly eager to learn more, I can think of no better book to recommend.

This game is awesome. 끝말잇기

My wife recently introduced a word game to me that I am hooked on. Although I am hopelessly unmatched to go up against a native speaker like herself, I still think it is a lot of fun. The game is simple: One person says a Korean word with two syllables/letters (글자) and the next person in the group must come up with a word that starts with the last syllable. Round and round the game goes until someone takes too long to answer. The words must be nouns and they must be given as fast as possible. This game is obviously great for reinforcing hanja-based words but the occasional pure Korean thrown in really makes the game really interesting.

An example game might look like this:

구두 -> 두부 -> 부인 -> 인삼 -> 삼각 -> 각차 -> 차반 -> ...등등
shoes -> tofu -> ginseng -> triangle -> each people -> a type of salted fish -> ... etc

I've played some variations where the word can have three syllables or even include verbs. More can be read here at the Korean wikipedia article. A similar but seemingly more difficult game is 쿵쿵따


처럼 reminds me of a friend of mine when I was young. When we heard of new bands, he would find creative ways of describing them to me. For example: Society's Finest is like Zao meets Dillinger Escape Plan or Mudvayne is like Slipknot meets [some math metal band whose name I've forgotten]. It always made me laugh. 

처럼 isn't exactly a monster mashup version of "meets". It's much more like "like" as in 농구 선수처럼 키가 커요 He/She's tall like a basketball player or 모델처럼 잘 생겼어요 He/She's good looking like a model

김선생님은 호랑이처럼 무서워요 Mrs Kim is as scary as a tiger
윤은혜는 강아지처럼 귀엽게 생겼어요 Yoon EunHye is as cute as a puppy
(*note the above examples are lost on the average Westerner. Calling a teacher a tiger calls to mind that cougar/student relationship from Dawson's Creek and calling a super-cute model "as cute as a puppy" calls to mind a different word that stands for "female dog". Conversely, Calling someone "쥐처럼 귀엽게 생셨어" (as cute as a mouse) is about as insulting as it gets. Go figure.)

정민이는 시계처럼 약속을 잘 지키는 사람이에요 Jungmin keeps his promises/appointments like a watch.(He's dependable)
유에스비가 총처럼 생겼어요 That USB drive looks like a gun
짐대가 자동차처럼 생겼어요 The bed looks like a car (you know the ones I'm talking about)
고양이처럼 섹시하게 생겼어요 She's sexy like a cat
인형처럼 예쁘게 생겼어요 She's a pretty as a doll (again, kind of weird...)
한국사람처럼 말 잘 하는구요 You speak Korean just like a Korean
아나운서처럼 단정했어요 He/She speaks clearly like an announcer

Adverbs (부사) are represented in Korean by three cute little markers: ~게, ~히, ~이.
The ~게 marker would be equivalent to the commonness of ~ly in English, so let's start there.

A: 앞머리는 어떨게 발라 드릴까요? How should I cut your bangs?
B: 조금 짧게 잘라 주세요 Just a little short (lit. Cut it a little shortly)

A: 이모, 사과 씻을까요? Aunt So-and-so, should I wash the apple?
B: 응 깨끗하게 씻어 주세요 yeah make it nice and clean (lit. Wash it cleanly)

A: 잘 먹겠습니다 Thanks for making the food (lit. I'll eat well)
B: 네 맛있게 드세요 Eat up! (lit. Eat it deliciously)

A: 주사를 놓아 드릴께요 I'm going to give you a shot, now.
B: 안 아프게 해주세요 Please be gentle (lit. Do it not hurtfully)

A: 선생님....아...그개...어 이잖아..... Teacher.... um, I uh....well, you see....
B: 응? 뭐라고? 크게 말해 Huh? What'd you say? Speak up (lit. speak loudly)

The "~히"and "~이" adverbs are practical however not nearly as common as the "~게" adverb and are specific to certain verbs. My best advice is to just listen to what is used more often for a given verb.

A: 와!! 왠 일이야? whoa... what are you doing here?
B: 쉿! 조용히! Shhh be quiet (lit. speak silently)
(*this is a situation where one can instead say 작게 말해야해 but it's not as common)

A: 엄마 다녀올께요! Mom, I'm going (to school and I'll be back later)!
B: 응 빨리 와 Come (home) quickly

A: 예들아! 사탕 줄까? Hey kids! Should I give you some candy?
B: 네! 많이 주세요! Yes! Give me a lot! (lit. many give me)

A classic example of how Korean is unnecessarily difficult. In English, virtually anything that someone puts on as clothing uses the verb "to wear". However, Korean likes to tick off the world off by making separate verbs for each section of the body. I still struggle a bit with these so forgive me if there are mistakes:

to wear (on your upper and lower body) 입다
ex) 스웨터를 입고 있어요 I'm wearing a sweater.
ex) 밖에 추우니까 코트 입어. Since it's cold, put on your coat
ex) 날씨가 더우니까 남방 셔츠를 입으세요 Since it's hot, put on a Hawaiian style shirt
ex) 무슨 청바지를 입을까? Which blue jeans should I wear?

to wear (on your head) 쓰다
ex) 언제부터 안경 써요? Since when do you wear glasses?
ex) 머리띠를 쓰면 더 예쁘게 보일거야. If you wear a hairband, you'll look even more pretty.
ex) 왜 선글라스를 쓰고있어? Why are you wearing sunglasses?

to wear (on your feet) 신다
ex) 방 안에 신발 신지마라! Don't wear your shoes in the house.
ex) 그 아저씨가 분홍색 양말 신고있어 That guy is wearing pink socks.
ex) 실내화를 신야봐 Put on some house slippers.

to wear (or tie something around your neck) 매다
ex) 우리 큰 형은 매일 넥타이를 매고있어요 My brother wears a necktie everyday
ex) 목걸이를 매고있어요. I'm wearing a necklace
ex) 스카프를 매고있어요 I'm wearing a scarf

to wear (or hang something over/on something) 매달다
ex) 크리스마스 트리에는 예쁜 장식품들을 매달아요 We hang cute decorative stuff on Christmas trees.

to wear (over your shoulder) 메다
ex) 초등학생들은 어깨에 가방을 메고 가요. Elementary students wear their school bags over their shoulders.
ex) 네팔의 포터들은 히말라야 산을 오를 때 20kg 이하의 짐을 메고 가야해요. The weight of Nepalese porters (Sherpas) wear on their shoulders climbing the Mountain Himalaya should not exceed 20kg.

to wear (an accessory) 차다, 하다 (interchangeable)
ex) 새로운 시계를 하고 있어요 I'm wearing my new watch
ex) 허리띠를 차고 있니? Are you wearing a belt?
ex) 다이아몬드 귀걸이를 하고 싶은데.. I want to wear diamond earrings...

to wear (something on your hand) 끼다
ex) 묵주반지를 보통 껴요? Do you usually wear your Catholic ring?
ex) 추우니까 장갑을 껴봐 Since it's cold, put on these gloves
ex) 지금 커플링을 끼고있어요? Are you wearing a couple ring?

to hold (something in your hand) 들다
ex) 저는 지금 선물을 들고 있어요. I am holding a present in my hands.
ex) 내가 무슨 짐을 이렇게 많이 들고 있지? 내 아내가 쇼핑한 물건이잖아. Why am I holding so much baggage... this is all of my wife's shopping....
ex) 제 컵을 잠시만 들고 있어주실래요? Could you hold my cup for a while please?

I can't state it better than already written. This week in the Korea Herald is part one of series on studying Korean in Korea. The meat of the post deals with which school to choose out of the big ones - Sogang, Yonsei, Ewha, etc. Do yourself a favor and check it out. A teaser:

Ask yourself these questions:
- How many hours per week can you commit to class time?
- How many hours per week can you commit to studying outside of class?
- What level of Korean do you want to reach?
- How do you intend to use Korean once you've finished studying?
If you're considering graduate study in Korea, looking for a job in a Korean company, or want to read high-level literature or news you should definitely be considering university language programs. If you're studying in order to socialize with Korean friends, get some insight into contemporary culture and facilitate a more enjoyable, comfortable stay in Korea, then academy or free courses will most likely suffice.

Comfortable Self-Introductions.

I am a confident speaker of Korean in many subjects but like other students of a foreign language, there are some topics that I can't really say much about. For example, if the topic is "school" or "home" I have a lot to talk about. I can express myself quite well in these basic, elementary-level subjects. However, if the topic is "Japanese nationalism versus Korean nationalism" or "monkey brain surgery" then I'm kind of at a loss for words. I can't express myself how I want to in Korean in these subjects.

No worries right? Then how come when I meet a new person, I freeze up? Why does my self-introduction sound like I'm at newcomer at a somber AA meeting? Why are my self-intros so robotic? Isn't this one of the first things people learn how to do?

If other students of Korean are like myself, they taught themselves the basics (한글, 인사, 숫사, 등) but relied on other sources for other grammar points (조사, 동사, 발음, 등). I'm sure this is an acceptable progression as we hardly ever have to go back and relearn numbers despite the fact that we didn't learn from a teacher. Sure, they maybe some things we missed the first time around such as the special spelling for "유월" (June) and "스무" (twenty) instead of "육월" and "스물" respectively. For the most part, basics are basics.

Well one subject that I neglected was my self-introduction. It just simply escaped me. I either did it in English (Hey nice to meet you. I'm so-and-so's friend Matthew. We spoke on the phone? It's nice to finally meet you. I've heard a lot about you. So, you're looking for a language exchange partner?) or someone else did it for me in Korean behind my back (This guy I'm going to introduce to you is weird. He's a white guy but he really likes Korea for some reason. He's got this thing for Korean history that creeps me out. Oh and he can use chopsticks and eats spicy food better than we do. Shhh here he comes.)

So, I am on a quest to learn how to naturally introduce myself. Like most conversational matters, one cannot just memorize one end-all be-all sentence and hope for the best. Each situation is different and requires a different approach. If I meet another language student and he's about the same age, I'll obviously talk to him differently than to my wife's father's coworker who's a good twenty years older than me. I'll try to include as many tips as possible but keep in mind that this is unique to me and my own opinion of what makes a natural sounding self-intro. If you would like to change the meat of the sentence to make it yours, please feel free. Take note that the English translation will be literal.

저는 매튜 입니다 I am Matthew
저는 매튜 라고 합니다 I am called Matthew
저는 선생님이구요, 학생이기도 해요. I am a teacher and also I'm a part-time student.
저는 미국 사람이구요, 텍사스에서 왔어요. I am an American and I come from Texas.
저는 미국 나이로 26살이구요, 한국 나이로는 28살이예요. My American age is 26 and my Korean age is 28.
저는 한국 역사를 정말 좋아하구요, 한국어 공부하는 것도 좋아해요. I really enjoy Korean history and I also like studying Korean.
미국에서 온 매튜라고 해요 I come from America and my name is Matthew
한국에 온 지 7개월 됐어요 I've been in Korea for seven months
약 2년 반 지났어요 It's been about two and a half years / About 2.5 years have passed (since I came).

Korean is a fascinating language. There's even a great way, in Korean, to confirm that you didn't hear what someone just said. Furthermore, there's a way to tell the person that yes, indeed, I did ask that, I didn't hear what you said and now I am confirming that you asked the question in which was not heard. How validating. How many Korean-speakers does it take to screw in a lightbulb?

There's an important distinction to make before starting the "what did you say?" game. First of all, there's questions and then there's statements. I typically hear the "what did you say?" verb conjugation for questions more often than for statements. Also, asking "what did you say? Is that what you said?" does not carry the same possible negative connotation that it does in English. I can't help but think to myself "Perk up your freakin ears next time son!" but thankfully I refrain. There's just a level of politeness that both 1) doesn't correspond exactly in English and 2) exists in Korean in a different way. It's not always the "what'd you say, boy?" feeling to it. Many times it's just a confirmation; almost a respectable confirmation before proceeding.

Repeating a Question
A: 미국에 가밨어요?
B: 미국 가봤냐고? 아니에요.

A: 밥 먹었어요?
B: 밥 먹었냐고요? 네 그럼요.

A: 야. 돈 있니?
B: 돈 있냐고? 아...그개...

Repeating a Statement
A: 오늘 컴퓨터 샀는데...
B: 컴퓨터 샀다고요? 언제? 얼마 줬어요?

A: 2년 동안 일본어 배웠어요
B: 2년 동안 배웠다고요? 와!

A: 걱정마. 맥주 열 잔만 먹었어.
B: 열 잔 먹었다고?! 죽으래?!

It's also important to note that the "고" in ~다고요 and ~냐고요 is pronounced more like /구/. Contrary to some advice, it isn't only to sound more cute; it's just easier to pronounce that way. ~냐구 just rolls off your tongue easier.

I'm certainly not here to engage in a developmentally appropriate argument of whether to use L1 or L2 when teaching a foreign language. I could care less because both are appropriate in my opinion. Both have their place and both can be effective. Both can also lead to no progress whatsoever.

In my current situation, I teach English (L2) to Korean (L1) students in Seoul. I usually have a coteacher who is a native Koren speaker. Ideally (and I use that term loosely) clear and efficient coteaching occurs. Therefore, the foreign teacher such as myself needs no L1 knowledge to effectively teach L2. Theoretically. In practice though, most of my coteachers' English is barely acceptable; perhaps since it is an elementary school or perhaps I just got unlucky. Either way, I find knowing Korean immensely helps me do my job; not to mention it's great practice. Something about speaking in front of kids is humbling because although they don't intimate me, if I make a mistake, they show no pause in correcting me.

Here are a few words and phrases that help me do what I do. If you teach Korean students, these words might help you, too. I also realize that these phrases might be a bit too polite for some people's tastes. I certainly don't always talk to my students in 높임말 but the phrases below are a starting place. If you can think of anymore (or I've made a mistake) please leave a comment below!

Basic Expressions
애들아 hey (to students)
여러분 hey everyone (more polite)
질문 있어요? any questions?
답을 알면 손을 드세요. raise your hand if you know the answer
기억 안나요? you don't remember?
좋은 질문이에요! good question!
손을 내리세요. put down your hands
질문있는 사람, 질문 하세요 if you have a question, you can ask me
한국말이나 영어 다 괜찮아요 Korean or English is okay

책을 펴세요 open your books
쓰세요 please write
읽으세요 please read
읽어 해주세요 please read (for me)
책을 덮으세요 close your books
칠판 을 보세요 look at the blackboard [whiteboard]
여기 보세요 look here, please
앞으로 보세요 look forward, please
잘 들으세요 listen well
조용히 하세요 please be quiet
자, 좀 조용히 해 주시겠어요? could you please be more quiet?

일어서세요 stand up please
앉으세요 sit down please
대답 하세요 answer me please
따라 하세요 repeat after me
다시 한 번 말해 주세요 please say that again
크게 말해주세요 speak louder please
천천히 말해 주세요 please speak slowly
안에 들어가세요 please go inside (the classroom [if you are outside of it])
들어오세요 please come inside (the classroom [if you are inside of it])

More Classroom Instructions
투표할거예요 we're going to take a vote
순서대로 만드로보세요 make it in order
짝하고 대화 연습하세요. if already in pairs, practice together
짝을 지어서 대화를 연습하세요. find a partner and practice
나에게 질문할 것을 만들어 보세요 I want you to make some questions to ask me
상상해 보세요 pretend, imagine
늦지마! don't be late!
먼저 설명을 잘 읽고 문제를 푸세요. First of all, read the explanation well, and then solve the problem.
문제를 잘 읽고 답하세요. Read the problem well, and then give answers.
문 제부터 먼저 잘 읽고 시작하세요. Read the problems well first, and then start.
여 러분 먼저 설명을 잘 읽고 문제를 푸세요. Everyone, please read the explanation first and then solve the problems.

Classroom Management (handle with care)
잘 했어! good job!
자신 있어요? (do you) feel confident?
제가 말할때는 좀 조용히 해 주세요. Please be quiet when I am talking.
조용히 하라고 했죠? 그쵸? I told you to be quiet, didn’t I?
조용히 하라고 했잖아! I told you to be quiet, didn’t I?!
떠들지 마세요! don’t make a sound! (noise)
그거 되게 무례 한 거야 that's really rude
예의 없어 you have no manners
이 엄살쟁이 sore loser

말하기 speaking
듣기 listening
읽기 reading
쓰기 writing
어휘 vocabulary
글씨 handwriting
수학 math
과학 science
역사 history
마술 art
음악 music
특수 교육 special education

Test-related phrases
시험지에서 손 떼세요, 펜 놓고. since it's a test, don't touch your paper, and put your pens down
얼마나 공부 했어? how much did you study?
시험이 어려울까요? do you think the test will be hard?
시험이 어땟어? how was the test?
좀 어려웠어 it was a little difficult
합격 축하해 congratulations on passing the exam!

Various Terms
자기펑가 self-assessment
제4과 lesson four
연 습 문제 exercises
방학 school vacation
교장님 principal
교 감님 vice-principal
부장님 supervisor
원어민 native speaker